Chapter 6: Chak Rulers
Ghazi Khan became the ruler of this domain in the
aforesaid year (A.D. 1554). In early spring the same group of his near and
distant people whose mission was only to perpetrate mischief, disorder and
bloodshed, once again entered into an alliance to put an end to the lives of
Ghazi Khan and Malik Husain and to become the masters of this land. But they
were not destined to succeed in their mission and Ghazi Khan learnt of their
intentions. He summoned Nusrat Khan, Yusuf Chak, son of Regi Chak, and Shankar
Malik to his presence, and told them that he had learnt of [their] conspiracy.
He spoke to them in soft tone so that their kinsmen would not unite with them.
He detained them at his house for the night. Next morning, Nusrat Chak's
brethren and their associates destroyed the bridges in the city, took defensive
positions in a certain quarter [of the city], and rose in opposition against
him. Ghazi Khan came out to meet them. He crossed the river by boats and
inflicted a crushing defeat upon them. Nusrat Chak's brothers and some of their
accomplices were slain in the battle and he himself was taken prisoner. A short
while later, Yusuf Chak, the son of Regi Chak, was captured and enchained in
Some time later, a group of people, comprising Shankar
Chak, Bahram Chak and others raised a band of their soldiers and offered
stubborn resistance to Ghazi Khan in the town of Soipor (Sopor). Ghazi Khan
struck hard at them and put them to rout. Bahram Chak was brought as a captive
from Khuihama and was beheaded. Although an attempt was made to gouge out the
eyes of Yusuf Chak, yet, by God's supreme will, his eyes remained intact.
After some days he escaped from the prison and went to India. His brother,
Ibrahim Chak was also put to the sword. In combination with his brothers, Malik
Husain Chak and Ali Chak, he (Ghazi Khan) converted the domain of Kashmir into a
During his rule, Ghazi Khan demonstrated qualities of
courage and manliness in crushing the army of the Mughals which had been joined
by a section of Kashmiri soldiers and had attacked him. Stories of his bravery
and extraordinary heroism spread in the domain of India. Here is one of these.
Shah Abu'l-'Ma'ali  aspired to conquer India and,
therefore, adopted a policy of confrontation with Jalalu'd-Din Akbar and Bairam
Khan. A large number of Kashmiri nobles aligned themselves with him and brought
him into Kashmir via the Baramulla route to head towards the city (Srinagar).
A large number of Kashmiris, in small and large groups, joined the army of
Abu'l-Ma'ali. Ghazi Khan had with him only two of his brothers, his sons and a
handful of kinsmen. Nusrat Chak was brought on the battlefield in chains. At
this time, Ghazi Khan adopted a soft conciliatory attitude towards Mir Sayyid
Ibrahim Khan. He also established matrimonial relations with him. Thus, after
appeasing Mir Sayyid Ibrahim Khan, he proceeded to meet his foe. A confrontation
between the two armies took place at Hanjiverah. Ghazi Khan demonstrated
remarkable bravery and overpowered and destroyed the enemy. In this battle, Nasi
Chak and Husi Chak, the sons of Zaiti Chak, and a considerable number of
Kashmiri warriors fell on the battlefield; the Mughals also suffered numerous
casualties. The slaving of a large number of Mughal soldiers bred a feeling
of fear in their hearts which remained there for many years. Shams Raina, the
son of 'Idi Raina, was captured in a forest and put to the sword. Thus
commenced the period of Ghazi Khan's independent and autocratic government over
Kashmir; he distributed presents to his soldiers.
Some years later, Khwaja Hajjl, Naji Malik and Nusrat
Chak united together, took Qara Bahadur and a contingent of Mughal sordiers with
them, and entered into Kashmir via the Nowshehr route.  Ghazi Khan,
accompanied by his brothers, Mir Sayyid Ibrahim Khan and their troops praceeded
to face them via the Hirpur route. His troops occupied the posts over the
mountains from Bahram Gala to Soel [sic]. At this time Fath Chak and Lohar Chak
were in the mountains of Poonch. They held consultations with their advisers and
did not go over to the Mughal troops but joined Ghazi Khan. Nusrat Chak also
happened to be in India at that time. He sent a message to Ghaazi Khan
informing him of his intention of joining him and not the Mughals. This
discouraged the Mughal army. Not feeling itself strong enough to proceed
further, it decided to halt at Rajouri under these circumstances. Ghazi Khan
attacked them and a big battle followed. The Mughal army consisted of brave and
dauntless soldiers like Kuchak Bahadur and several others. From dawn to early
afternoon, there was heavy fighting in which many people on both sides were
slain. In late afternoon the Mughals suffered a defeat and they lost a large
number of their warriors on the battlefield. With great difficulty, their
commanders managed to escape to India. Victorious Ghazi Khan and his brothers
entered into Kashmir along with their troops.
These two wars with the Mughals are among the notable
events in Ghazi Khan's career. Otherwise his record is inglorious. In acts of
cruelty and oppression in causing bloodshed and in gouging out eyes of his
enemies, in inflicting physical tortures and in chopping off the limbs of human
beings and in killing near and distant ones, no one has ever known or heard of a
tyrant like him. It must also be mentioned that during the days of Ghazi Khan,
as long as Sultan Isma'il Shah lived, he was a Sultan only in name, living in
the palaces of the former (Sultan's). After his death, Ghazi Khan installed his
nephew Habib Shah on the throne in his place. Finding that Habib Shah was not
even worth the name of the office to which he had been elevated, Ghazi Khan
aspired to adopt this title, ascend the throne, and assume the status of an
independcnt ruler. Consequently he held consultations with his counsellors
and advisers and formally ascended the throne in the year A.H. 960 (A.D. 1552)
It was Ghazi Khan who first established a kingship for
the tribe of Chaks. Two hundred and eight years after Sultan Shamsu'd-Din, the
kingdom of Kashmir passed from the hands of his descendants into those of the
descendants of Lankar Chak.
Ghazi Khan reigned for a period of nine years. After he
was inflicted with leprosy which made him blind, he abdicated in favour of his
blood brother Husain Shah. But some of the courtiers and nobles made him to
repent over his decision of abdicating the throne so much so that he thought of
taking back the reins of power from him.[l3] This resulted in a quarrel between
the two; Husain Shah aligned some of the nobles with himself and took by force
the reins of the state. Ghazi Chak was deposed and interned in his house.
At the beginning of his reign Husain Shah adopted a
just and benevolent policy towards his subjects so much so that aliens and
natives of this land considered him Nowsherwan the Just in comparison to the
tyrant Ghazi Khan. On finding him a benign and just ruler, some of the poets [of
the time] produced a chronogram of his accession to the throne as
Khusraw-i-'Adil (the Just King).
Fath Khwaja's revolt
Some time later, those of the miscreants who had been
responsible for creating enmity and discord between Ghazi Shah and Malik Daulat
and had escaped reprisals at the hands of the former, joined hands to work
towards the decline and fall of Husain Shah. However, Husain Shah came to know
their nefarious designs and reprimanded some of them. He ordered that the eyes
of Allamad Khan, son of of Ghazi Shah. and Muhammad Khan, son of Abdal Magray,
be gouged out. A short while after, owing to the provocations of some wicked
persons whose habit was to foment trouble, Fath Khwaja, a protege of Husain
Shah and titled Khan Zaman, was made to fear Husain Shah. Hence out of fear to
his life he aligned with himself some Kashmiri chiefs, like Fath Malik, sons of
Zaiti Malik, Shams Duni. Haidar Khan, son of Ibrahim Khan, and others, and
waited for a suitable opportunity to kill some of his opponents.  It came
his way on a day when Husain Shah had gone on shikar[l8] and Khan Zaman and his
opponents were in the secretariat. Khan Zaman took time by the forelock and
made a sudden attack on them. The followers of Husain Shah found themselves
trapped in the royal house. Fath Chak and Bahadur Khan opened several passages
and entered the mansion of Husain Shah. But it did not please God Almighty to
crown them with success and both were slain on the spot. Khan Zaman and Shams
Duni suffered reverses and fled, but their pursuers captured and brought them
back. Husain Shah ordered amputation of their limbs. Now Mubarez Khan assumed
authority, though, not much later, his religious bigotry made him to invent
excuses to get rid of Husain Shah. The Sultan came to know of his foul
intentions, and therefore, got him arrested and his hands and feet were cut off.
Lohar Malik also met with a similar fate, and Nusrat Chak, who had already been
under arrest, was deprived of his eyesight by a royal command on the same day.
This group which had acted treacherously with Ghazi Khan in arresting and
blinding Malik Daulat Chak, met with the same fate which they had meted out to
others. So did it please God Almighty and thus was proved the axiom "as you
sow, so shall you reap."
After some time, Looli Malik was dismissed as chief
Vizir and divested of his authority. He was succeeded by Ali Koka. On account of
his sectarian bigotry, he was not disposed favourably towards the
beneficiaries of the Shia'faith (muhibban) and the aliens.
Yuuf Inder's episode
During his times there lived a person popularly known
as Yusuf Inder' who once happened to meet Qadi Habib on a roadside. The Qadi
was notorious for his malice towards the members of the house of the Prophet: he
hurled abuses on the adherents of Rafidi faith and spat at Yusuf Mir Inder, who
retaliated by meting out the same treatment to him, though somewhat recklessly.
The Qadi lashed him with his whip on his head. Since Yusuf Mir Inder happened to
be a soldier by profession, his (soldier's) pride was touched and, drawing his
sword, he inflicted one or two wounds upon the Qadi. Wounded and bleeding, the
Qadi fell down from his horse and Yusuf Mir Inder ran away. 'Ali Koka, the bigot
that he was, sent many people in search of him so that he was caught and brought
back. 'Ali Koka and Dati, thereupon, conspired to obtain permission from
Husain Shah to the effect that the judgement of the Qadis and the dispensers of
Muhammadan religious law be enforced in regard to this matter. They got this
when Husain Shah was under the effect of drink and narcotics. 'Ali Koka and
Dati Koka plotted to call in Qadi Musa, Mulla Petcheh [sic] Ganai and Mulla
Yusuf Almas and elicit from them a unanimous decree condemning Inder to death.
Extreme brutality which resulted from this bigotted action was reflected in his
execution. The flesh of his body was cut into pieces which people carried as
a gift for their womenfolk, and many people drank his blood as sherbet.
This execution engineered by 'Ali Koka and Dati Koka
with the connivance of the Qadis and jurisconsults brought to surface the hidden
calamity. The blood of a large number of Muslims was spilt and many people on
either side lost their lives. Husain Shah was unaware of these harpenings.
Shortly after the execution of that poor man (Yusuf
Inder), a group of Sunni divines sought a meeting with Qadi Zen and Mulla Reza,
son of Mulla Salman Mufti, in which they offered to enter into a debate with the
party of the mullas who claimed to have issued the decree of Yusuf Mir Inder's
execution in conformity with the provisions of Islamic religion. They argued
that no religion justified his execution and that in issuing a decree sentencing
him to death the Qadis and the theologians had only been prompted by malice and
bigotry. The sentence, they claimed, was unwarranted and uncalled-for.
Qadi Zen and Mulla Reza then undertcok the mission of
calling at the private lodgings of the nobles, courtiers, and distinguished
persons of Husain Shah's court one by one and placed before them the case of Mir
Inder. These people brought the matter also to the notice of Husain Shah.
Akbar's envoy to Kashmir
While the issue continued to be a subject of hot
discussion, Mirzaa Muqim arrived in these lands as the envoy of Jalalu'd-Din
Akbar Badshah. Husain Shah had a son, Ibrahim Khan by name, who had unparalleled
physical beauty and charm; he had also attained excellence in the skills of
archery, horsemanship and soldiery. He died because of some incurable
disease. Husain Shah was told that he had to pay the heavy price of his
son's life for the bloodshed of innocent Yusuf Mir. In fact, Husain Shah
repented over Yusuf's killing and directed that the issue which was being
debated by the mullas, be left to the judgement of Mirza Muqim, the messenger
and envoy of Jalalu'd-Din Akbar Badshah. He would preside over the meeting of
the mullas in which they would debate the issue. Among the persons present were
Mulla Petcheh Ganai and Mulla Almas, the two mullas who were signatories to the
decree of Yusuf Mir's execution. The rest of the Qadi's hid themselves. Qadi Zen
and Mulla Reza put questions to Petcheh Ganai and Mulla Yusuf Almas in the
presence of Mirza Muqim and a large number of learned and scholarly men,
dignitaries, theologians and the elite of the city. They asked them the
authority book and religion—on the basis of which they had issued a verdict of
Yusuf Mir's execution. Their argument was that he had not inflicted more than
two or three wounds by his sword upon Qadi Habib and although he did not die of
those wounds and would not have died, they had issued the decree of his
execution. They were told that if they had issued the said verdict in accordance
with the postulates of the Hanafi sect, the books of the sect were available
there, and if they had done it in accordance with the postulates of Shafi'i
faith, their books, too, were at hand. It was now for them to cite the relevent
authority and the source that justified the death penalty on the innocent
victim. They were further told that in the Islamic community and in the religion
of the Prophet and among the jurisconsults ( mujtahids ) throughout the length
and breadth of the Islamic world restribution for each wound inflicted and
injury caused had been set forth in the books of each padagogue and also on the
handbook of each theologian. They were asked to explain as to under the sanction
of which sect did they put that defenceless man into the hands of his
Both of them found themselves unable to furnish any
reply, but pointed out that they had only carried out the orders of Husain Shah.
They stated that 'Ali Koka had openly told them of Hasain Shah's intention of
putting an end to Yusuf Mir Inder's life for political reasons and had insisted
upon them to issue a decree to the effect. In this way, they contended, it was
the King who got him executed for political reasons and they were not to be held
responsible for the act.
But Husain Shah made a solemn declaration that he, for
one, had absolutely no intention of putting Yusuf to death and that he had left
the case to the judgement and dispensation of the Qadis and the learned men of
religion so that nobody would make an attempt to kill him.
When this statement of Husain Shah was announced in the
assembly, both the mullas were struck dumb and had nothing to say. The 'ulema of
sunnat and Jama'at present in the assembly unanimously agreed to issue a decree
in conformity with the creed of Imam Shafi'i.
It is said that the ruler of this domain, the sitting
Qadi and the executed person, all professed the creed of Imam Shafi'i. The
mullas of sunnat and the jama'at were shown the letters with royal signets and
they declared the decree as sound. The decree pronounced that both the mullas on
account of having issued false judgement and unjustifiable order [of execution]
regarding the shedding of an innocent person's blood, should suffer retribution
endorsing the aforesaid decree Qadi Abdu'l-Ghaffur of Hanafi faith and Qadi
Zenu'd-Din of Shafi'i faith announced the verdict of retribution. On the
basis of this verdict of the Qadis and the learned men of theology, Husain Shah
permitted the handing over of the two Mullas to the next of kin of the late
Yusuf Mir, who completed the retribution. The rest of the mullas emigrated to
parts of India and Lahore. Some of them however succeeded in resuming their
original offices, but only after the intercession for and advocacy of some of
the nobles, governors and their former patrons, 'Ali Koka, and Dati Koka, the
main accomplices in the conspiracy not still satisfied with enormous bloodshed
caused by them, kept lying low and waited for a suitable opportunity when they
could forment trouble once again.
After some time, Husain Shah attended to the
arrangements concerning the gifts to be sent to Jalalu'd-Dln Akbar Badshah. He
then permitted Mirza Muqim to return along with Ya'qub Mir as his (Husain
Shah's) envoy. .'Ali Koka and Dati Koka, seizing the opportunity, sought the
permission of Husain Shah to send Khwaja Hajjl Gani, a prominent and trusted man
of theirs, with the party of Mirza Muqim and Ya'qub Mir under the pretext that
he would look to the needs of the party on its way and also give them presents
at Lahore. But close at their heels, they sent a party of wicked persons of this
country, with despatches and gifts to (Mulla) 'Abdulla, Shaykh 'Abdu'n-Nabi, and
a number of Qadis and Mulla's - all ot whom were rabid bigots. They also
entreated and implored them to give false witness and to leave no stone unturned
in getting rid of them (Mirza Muqim and Ya'qub Mir).
Mulla 'Abdullah headed a delegation of mullas to Agra
the purpose being the one already mentioned. He sought a meeting with Jalalu'd-Din
Akbar and having briefed the false witnesses, got Mirza Muqim and Mirza Ya'qub
executed. The flames of disturbance and turmoil [following this event] leapt so
high that Mir Sayyid Sibi [sic], in spite of being a true descendant of the line
of Husaini Sayyids, was engulfed in it and martyred. 
At last when, because of his mature understanding,
Jalalu'd-Din Badshah could see through the subversive activities of Mulla
'Abdullah and the disruptive role of the other mullas, he ordered their
expulsion from the kingdom of India. Some of them were ordered to be beheaded.
Mulla 'Abdullah was banished to Gujerat and all the troublemongers and
miscreants were exiled. In this way the Indian lands and Gujerat were totally
freed from the malevolence of the miscreants and malefactors. The country was
restored to prosperity and plenty through the dispensation of justice and by
initiating works of public welfare. People and communities of different faiths
and professions; of difflerent religions; worshippers of idols and followers of
Islamic faith and its teachings; people of all ranks, high and low, lived
cordially and even extended cooperation and support to one another. No one would
become a cause of hindrance to the other nor would anyone have the courage and
audacity to object to or assail the religion and faith of others.
'Ali Shah revolts
'Ali Koka and Dati did not rest satisfied with (this)
trouble and disturbances they had caused. After some time, H.usain Shah suffered
a stroke of paralysis. Through craftiness and cunning, 'Ali and Dati Koka made
Husain Shah agree to detain and put in chains his brother 'Ali Shah, his
virtuous son Yusuf and also his close and intimate associate, the warrior Sayyid
Mubarak Khan. They planned to install one of the children of Husain Shah on the
throne so that they would share between themselves the Government and authority
of the domain of Kashmir with the consent of Naji Malik.
Some courtiers of Husain Shah informed 'Ali Shah about
this; fearing their cunning, he moved between Maraj and Kamaraj under the
pretext of shikar and sight-seeing. A few days later, on the advice and
promptings of Miran Sayyid Mubarak Khan, he left the city under the pretext of
shikar and encamped in the town of Sopor. As a matter of political expediency,
however, Miran Sayyid Mubarak himself negotiated an accord with Ali' Khan, Ibeh
Shah and Luli Malik Lavand. Then he sent Muhammad Bhat to take them out [of the
city]. Taking leave of Husain Shah, he himself headed towards Sopor. But 'Ali
Koka got wind of it and deputed a couple of his trusted men to seek 'Ali Khan
and bring him to his lodging where he wanted to imprison him. 'Ali Khan left his
house and showed great courage in heading towards Sopor. 'Ali Koka's men brought
back the news to him of 'Ali Khan's move towards Sopor upon which he sent a
large number of troops in his pursuit. 'Ali Khan and his companions were
overtaken, but his brother Daulat Chak, with a handful of his people, offered
resistance and by sheer toughness of spirit succeeded in repulsing them. In this
encounter a fair number of people on either side including Daulat Chak sustained
wounds. 'Ali Khan succeeded in reaching Sopor along with his men. On the same
day, Ibeh Shah ran away from shikar and came to 'Ali Shah. After a few days,
Abdal Khan, who was in the mountains of Poonch, learnt of these developments and
wasted no time in joining 'Ali Shah. Luli Malik also escaped from the city along
with his sons and associates via the Shihabu'd-Din Pora route and established
contact with 'Ali Shah. When 'Ali Shah's troops increased in number, he left
Sopor and marched to the city. That day he halted at the village of Fath Yari.
On the other side, after holding consultations among
themselves. 'Ali Koka, Dati and Nali Malik agreed to make a night assault on
'Ali Shah, hoping that taking him by surprise would yield the desired result.
The aforesaid Dati Koka lost no time in conveying the news of this strategy to
'Ali Shah at the village of Fath Yari. He summoned Daud Bhat Paloo [sic], an
employee of Mirza Sayyid Mubarak Khan, and told him about it:
[ verses ]
Along with his troops, Daud Bhat waited for the enemy
at Hanjivereh. The enemy made a night-assault on the army of Ali Shah and he
forthwith sent this information to 'Ali Shah [who was in the rear] and engaged
himself in a fierce battle with his opponents. Many warriors were wounded on
either side. Husain Shah's troops could make no headway; they succeeded only in
killing a few of Sayyid Mubarak Khan's soldiers with their arrows and then
announced a retreat to rejoin their army:
[ verses ]
Early in the morning 'Ali Shah made Sayyid Mubarak Khan
the commander of his troops and turned towards the city, halting at the village
'Ali Koka subdued
On the other side, Naji Malik, 'Ali koka and some
prominent people of this land made an assessment of the fighting that had taken
place recently, and came to the conclusion that if the whole lot of their
choicest soldiers could not cope just with Da'ud Bhat, how could they expect
them to be able to fight and subdue the veteran commanders and stalwarts of 'Ali
Shah's army. Thinking over this situation, they conceded that none but 'Ali Shah
deserved to be the rightful successor to the throne. After careful consideration
and taking a practical view of the situation, they sent the royal crown and the
fly-whisker (qutas) to 'Ali Shah through Baba Khalilu'llah the "exponent of
divine light and the fountain of divine secrets." Apprehending possible
disruption in the army, and also oppressed by their own doubts, the sons of Naji
Malik and Daulat Khan and some of the army commanders of this land defected to
Sayyid Mubarak Khan and sought refuge in his house.
In A.H. 978 (A.D. 1570), Husain Shah was deposed
and 'Ali Shah succeeded him to the throne. He had already won over Sayyid
Mubarak Khan to his side during the times of Ghazi Shah and, through promises
and an understanding with him, he worked towards the strengthening and
consolidation of his position as ruler. To fulfil his promises and also with a
view to consolidating his position soon after succeeding to the throne, he left
the entire administrative authority of the state in the hands of the aforesaid
Sayyid and, besides, gave his daughter in marriage to his son Shah Abu'l-Mu'ali.
Thus 'Ali Shah stood steadfast by his commitments and promises.
As already mentioned the sons of Naji Malik and Daulat
Khan and others had sought refuge in the house of Miran Sayyid Mubarak Khan.
Although 'Ali Shah nursed sinister malice against them, yet in deference to the
wishes of Miran Sayyid Mubarak Khan, he desisted from causing any embarrassment
to the Sayyid. On the contrary, he extended his favours to him. In order to
substantiate this, the writer feels prompted to recount a few stories to show in
what high esteem 'Ali Shah held the Sayyid.
In the beginning of his ( 'Ali Shah's ) reign, all the
kith and kin of Husain Shah conspired with the counsellors and advisers of 'Ali
'Shah to gouge out the eyes of Husain Shah and imprison him. The aforesaid
Sayyid Mubarak Khan came to know of their intentions. He implored 'Ali Shah to
be kind to Husain Shah and to abandon that idea. He conceded that during Husain
Shah's rule over the lands of Kashmir, there had been a decline in its
prosperity and although even with much strenuous effort it would not be possible
to restore it to its prosperity, yet he should take pity on him.
[ verses ]
'Ali Shah acts discreetly
This considered and welcome opinion was liked by 'Ali
Shah, with the result that he refrained from gouging out his eyes and putting
him in prison. Not only that, he even began to show compassion for Husain Shah,
a gesture which gave him a new lease of life. He was allowed to retain such of
his treasures as were already in his possession and also the staff he had in his
employ, and was permitted to take up his dwelling at Zenapore.
[ verses ]
After a lapse of a year and some days, Husain Shah died
in the aforesaid village.
[ verses ]
The cruel spheres do not let honest souls enjoy even a
moment of rest in this desolate abode. This example of 'Ai Shah's magnanimity
and the administrative prudence of Sayyid Mubarak Khan shall be remembered in
this country down to the day of judgement.
Here is another anecdote in this context. Two years
after the occurrence of the event mentioned above, 'Ali Khan, the son of Nawroz
Chak, made pledges and promises to the nobles of his clan to stage opposition to
'Ali Shah and wrest for themselves the governorship and revenue authority of
this country. But the government authorities came to know of their intention,
which they conveyed to 'Ali Shah. They told him that "thousands of eyes of
the opponents continued to be wide awake day and night in support of 'Ali
Khan." The matter was thus put before him in an exaggerated manner because
they wanted 'Ali Shah to issue an order of 'Ali Khan's execution. The
above-named Sayyid came to know of it. Through soft and subtle methods, he at
once undertook to dissuade the Sultan from issuing such an order. 'Ali Khan was
relieved of his ministry and sent back to his native place in Kamaraj.
But 'Ali Khan was not a person to rest contented.
Ungratefully forgetting 'Ali Shah's kindness and Sayyid Mubarak Khan's
intercession in his behalf, he escaped to Lahore in search of help from Hasan
Quli Khan. The miscreants in 'Ali Shah's kingdom seized this opportunity of
throwing their lot with the rebel 'Ali Khan. The story of the rebels was related
to 'Ali Shah in the presence of Sayyid Mubarak Khan; and news came in the
meanwhile from the city of Lahore that 'Ali Khan had not been able to get along
with Hasan Quli Khan on account of the latter's arrogance and, consequently,
had left his services. He was reported to have fled to Muhammad Kot mountains.
Thereupon Ali Shah's troops marched on to Muhammad kot, besieged him and brought
him as a captive before 'Ali Shah
[ verses ]
For some time he remained interned in the house of the
landlord of Chatr (gatr?). A year and some months later, the above-mentioned
Sayyid pleaded on his behalf with 'Ali Shah and succeeded in making him to
forget his spite against 'Ali Khan. He got him released from prison-chains and a
hundred dinars of pure gold were gifted away to him.
[ verses ]
Thus did the above-mentioned Sayyid graciously answer
the prayer of the supplicants as long as he had the power and authority of the
government in his hands.
Yet another story runs like this. Ibeh Shah, the son of
Ghazi Shah, often aspired to gain power and authority of this country. He would,
therefore, criticise and find fault with Yusuf Shah. When Yusuf Shah came to
know of this, he walked straight into his chamber, held him by his shirt collar,
and had him killed by the stroke of a sword of his attendant. Then he set out
for Sopor followed by most of the nobles of this land. This marked the signs of
disintegration in 'Ali Shah's rule.
Abdal Khan told Sayyid Mubarak Khan that he had assured
Ibeh Shah by swearing in the name of God that he would plead his case before
'Ali Shah, and see that he remained unhurt. Ibeh Shah had trusted him to the
time of his murder, but as things were, his life was put to an end.
[ verses ]
Abdal Khan overemphasized the incident and 'Ali Shah
provided him with troops to exterminate the unruly elements. 'Ali Shah warned
him not to break his promise, as otherwise he would come to harm.
The above-mentioned Mubarak Khan, without paying much
heed to 'Ali Shah, told Abdal Khan that "by faithful adherence to your
pledges and by your life-giving breath, you cannot revive [ Ibeh Shah ] to life.
Hence, whatever good you had intended for him, better offer that to his
heirs." In the course of these happenings, the above-mentioned Sayyid wrote
an admonishing letter to Yusuf Shah on receipt of which he abandoned his
intention of fighting his adversaries and returned to the city. This sort of
explosive situation could certainly not have been brought under control by an
indiscriminate use of brute force and bloodshed by the recalcitrant warriors of
this land. It was a single stroke of an auspicious pen that averted an impending
calamity of great magnitude and put 'Ali Shah in grateful obligation to Sayyid
[ verses ]
There is one more story of 'Ali Shah's magnanimity and
Sayyid Mubarak Khan's intercession with him. Chroniclers and historians have
mentioned that during the reign of 'Ali Shah, Shams Dooni and Muhammad Maraj,
two of the nobles of this land, entered into collusion with some chieftains of
Kashmir, with the intention of fomenting trouble and discord in 'Ali Shah's
kingdom. Their activities were regularly reported by authorities to the staff
officers at the royal court. When 'Ali Shah was apprised of this, he forthwith
despatched a select armed contingent to apprehend the miscreants and insurgents.
But the latter received advance information of this and sought refuge in the
house of Sayyid Mubarak Khan. This was also brought to the notice of 'Ali Shah.
In order to show due regard to the Sayyid, which would result in the
strengthening and consilidation of his rule, 'Ali Shah condescended to pardon
their misdeeds. However, Yusuf Shah, after ascending the throne, did not agree
to Sayyid Mubarak's such intercessions and his support [to the people] in the
manner in which 'Ali Shah did. The result was that it led to such a chaos and
confusion as could not be set right to this day. God willing, the details of
these events will be recorded at their proper place.
The above-mentioned Sayyid was a follower of Mir Badla
Rizvi, a person of spiritual and temporal eminence, who died in the early hours
of Friday at the time for offering namaz. It was under the influence of his
association and teachings that Sayyid Mubarak regularly attended the
congregational prayers and visited the graves and tombs of saints and dervishes
whose lone attachment is with God. Further notice of him shall be recorded in
[ verses ]
'Ali Shah's character
'Ali Shah abolished all brutal punishments like gouging
out of eyes, wanton killings, and amputation of limbs of human beings, which had
been in vogue during the days of earlier Sultans. Instead, he provided
even-handed justice to his subjects and was compassionate towards them. He lost
no opportunity in being equitable and kind to them. He extended his patronage to
all sections and groups of nobles and officials, in order to help them regain
their previous positions. His reign lasted nine years. In his public
dealings he strictly adhered to godliness; performed duties and obligations;
refrained from what was forbidden and vile; observed the mandates of the Prophet
of Islam by conforming to what was allowed and disallowed in his religion.
[ verses ]
During his reign, 'Ali Shah regularly played the game
of polo (chowgan) on the Idgah maidan on mornings and late afternoons. It so
happened that Baba Khalilu'llah, who had the power of knowing the unknown,
insistently solicited 'Ali Shah to stop participating in future in the game of
polo. But as God willed it, in the year A.H. 986 (A.D. 1578), the angel of death
suddenly brought him the message there on the very polo-ground where his nobles
and his whole retinue were attending upon him. In order to hit the ball, the
king bent his body which pressed his belly against the pommel and ripped open
his intestines. His heart began to sink and he forthwith retired to his palace
where he reached in the early hours of the morning, and then died.
[ verses ]
Abdal vs Yusuf Shah
When Abdal Khan learnt of the death of his brother 'Ali
Shah, he galvanized his troops into action to capture kingship and government of
this country. In order to achieve this objective, he decided to fight Yusuf Khan
with full might and main in the locality of Nowhatta. When Yusuf Khan came to
know of these developments, he held consultations with the commanders and
counsellors of his late father to drive out this menace. But nobody could
provide a remedy for this and the two adversaries, like pawns being manouvered
on a chess-board, found themselves locked in a stalemate. This situation was
reported to Sayyid Mubarak Khan. He activised a group of soldiers and his sons
and proceeded towards the palace of Ali Shah. Simultaneously he deliberated with
Yusuf Khan over the possibility of reconciliation with Abdal Khan and, outlining
the conditions of an accord, he sent word to Abdal Khan through Baba
Khalilu'llah, one of the Kashmiri Shaykhs. Abdal Khan had not forgotten
that, in spite of his intervention, Ibeh Shah had been tragically murdered by
Yusuf Khan and, therefore, he did not trust his word and deed. Consequently, he
considered Baba Khalilu'llah's entreaties and admonitions no more than an
exercise in futility. The result was that their mutual jealousy and acrimony
deepened and they appeared to be on the verge of fighting each other. In short,
Baba Khalilu'llah failed in his mission of preventing the impending disorder.
But once again at the behest of Yusuf Khan, Sayyid Mubarak Khan proceeded to
meet Abdal Khan in person along with Baba Khalilu'llah and Muhammand Bhat. He
brought home to him the facts that "the royal robes fitted well on the body
of no man other than Yusuf Shah for he was the heir to 'Ali Shah in letter and
spirit and that 'Ali Shah had always shown his singular favour and affection for
him." The Sayyid told him that Yusuf's authority had an edge over his (Abdal's)
command; he also told him to desist from taking any precipitate action, and take
the counsel of well-meaning friends as something highly helpful in the situation
in which he was placed . He emphasised to him the need for reestablishing
cooperation and goodwill with Yusuf Shah and of ceasing hostilities. The Sayyid
invited his whole-hearted attention to these counsels and warned him that if he
did not pay heed to his advice, he would have to face dire consequences.
[ verses ]
Sayyid Mubarak's role
Abdal Khan was in no mood to heed the advice of the
abovementioned Sayyid, and then followed what was inevitable. Abdal did not act
with wisdom and far-sightedness. and Sayyid Mubarak Khan returned to Yusuf
Shah. Having noticed Abdal Khan's intransigence and obstinacy, some
prominent persons of the land spoke of him critically, and wanted to induce
Sayyid Mubarak Khan to an open confrontation with him. They insisted that he
should take quick action. But wise people gifted with far-sightedness, clear and
piercing intelligence, first try for peace, which is a good beginning. As long
as issues can be settled amicably through negotiations and peaceful means, they
desist from the use of brute force and do not take recourse to active fighting.
[ verses ]
The decisive battle
Sayyid Mubarak Khan was infuriated by Abdal's attitude
to Abdal Khan to adopt the path of peace and friendship, but again he turned it
down which added to his animosity [towards him].
[ verses ]
Sayyid Mubarak Khan was infuriated by Abdal's attitude.
He forthwith undertook to see that Yusuf Shah assumed the royal robes. He put
the crown on his head after the manner of powerful kings: drew the fly-whisker (qutas)
on his head, and unfolded the royal parasol over his head. At the same time, he
made a firm resolve to fight Abdal Khan and, in vindication of this pledge, he
recruited a brigade of local warriors, and placed them under the command of
Muhammad Khan, son of Husi Chak to serve as vanguard to Yusuf's army. Himself,
he commanded a contingent of crack soldiers, including his sons, and took the
central position in the formation of troops. He marched towards Abdal Khan's
camp to the beat of war drums.
[ verses ]
After putting Yusuf Shah's troops in their proper
position, he put them behind his own for support and strength. But before
Yusuf's contingents could join him, Muhammad Khan, leading Yusuf's force, came
under enemy attack. Shams Chak, son of Daulat Chak, Mir Muhammad, son of 'Idi
Raina, Mir Hasan, son of Naji Malik, and the rest of their group launched a
fierce attack on his (Muhammad Khan's) troops and mauled them, after which they
turned towards the Sayyid's troops.
The first to make a gallant counter-attack on them were
Sayyid Jalal Khan and Sayyid Abul-Mu'ali, the two sons of the aforesaid Sayyid
Mubarak Khan. In the fierce battle that followed both sides exhibited feats of
extraordinary valour. Nusrat Chak, son of Shams Chak, was slain by Jalal Khan on
[ verses ]
Shah Abu'l-Mu'ali made a swift attack on Shams Chak,
who, after sustaining wounds on his hands rejoined his troops. Mulla Muhammad
Amin found the date of this event in the chronogram awwalan Shah bar sar-i saf
Abdal Khan saw the signs of disruption and disorder in
his army, but continued to offer tough resistance to Sayyid Mubarak. In the
course of fighting he received a wound from an arrow shot at him by Abu'l-Mu'ali.
Then he came in confrontation with Sayyid Husain Khan who lost no time in
wielding his sword and killing him.
[ verses ]
On finding his father slain, Habib Khan left the
battlefield, but Sayyid Jalalu'd-Din riding a swift horse, gave him a hot
pursuit in the hope of inflicting a wound on him. The fleeing Habib Khan turned
round and shot an arrow at him, which, after piercing his coat of mail went deep
into his heart. He died instantaneously on his horse.
The clan of the Baihaqi Sayyids displayed such
remarkable feats of heroism in this battle that the war veterans of this land
eulogised them and their ancestors in very eloquent words.
[ verses ]
Yusuf Shah had not, so far, arrived on the scene.
Beating the drums or victory, the victorious Sayyid Mubarak Khan marched off the
field and joined him half way. They heartily exchanged felicitations on their
success and thanked God for upholding unity among friends.
[ verses ]
Abdal's dead body
The Sayyid then proceeded to his private quarters and
Yusuf Shah to the battlefield, where he saw the dead body of Abdal Khan lying in
a pool of blood. Nobody was permitted to give it a burial. Yusuf Shah then
retired to his palace .
At this time Qadi Musa dispensed justice in the country
in accordance with the Islamic law. Without seeking the permission of Yusuf
Shah, but working with the sole purpose of pleasing God, he courageously went to
the battlefield and removed the dead body of Abdal Khan from dust and blood to
the graveyard of his ancestors. Since it happened to be a day of sporadic
fighting and skirmishes, he did not get time to carry out the task of burying
the dead. Early next morning, Sayyid Mubarak Khan got the dead body of his son,
who had been slain on the previous day, buried with full rites in the burial
ground of his ancestors. Then he rejoined Yusuf Shah for deliberations over
state affairs. Yusuf Shah, too, carried the dead body of his father, the late
'Ali Shah, to his ancestoral burial ground.
1. Hasan does not confirm that he did not become blind.
See THK. p. 274.
2. According to Hasan he was a Sayyid from Kashghar and
an adopted son of Humayun. See THK. p. 274.
3. Hasan's version is that it was through cunning that
he succeeded in bringing him to the town of Pattan along with his troops. See
THK. p. 275.
4. Ghazi Khan's daughter was given in marriage to
Ibrahim's nephew. Ibid.
5. About three kilometers from Pattan on road to
6. Malik Haidar computes the number of the slain at
four thousand TMH MS. f. 57b.
7. Hasan says that Shams Raina was captured because he
had helped the Mughals in leaving Kashmir. See THK p. 276.
8. Qara Bahadur had five to six thousand troops with
him and about two to three thousand Kashmiri soldiers also joined him. TMH. MS f
9. In the outskirts of Lahore. THK. p. 278.
10. Ghazi Khan stationed his troops at Lohar Kot. TMH.
MS. f. 59b.
11. Ghazi Khan had promised to pay the Doombs one gold
coin as a prize for each severed Mughal head. The Doombs performed the duties of
sentries or border scouts. In fact it was they who put the Mughals to rout and
Kashmiri regular troops were not deployed. See TMH MS. f. 60a. They brought
seven thousand severed heads of Mughal soldiers to Ghazi Khan. See TNK. MS. f.
12. The story of Habib Khan's deposition is described
by Malik Haidar like this. Once he behaved in his court in such a manner that
the nobles present at that occasion were put to great embarrassment. 'Ali Khan,
the younger brother of Ghazi Khan, took it as an offence and declared that Habib
Khan was misfit as a Sultan. He lifted the crown from his head and put it on the
head of Ghazi Khan and made him sit on the throne. See TMH MS. f. 58b.
13. Malik Haidar makes no mention of Ghazi Khan's
attempting to change his previous decision.
14. Nowsherwan-i 'Adil, the famous Sasanian king of
Iran, who reigned in the 6/7 century. But Hasan writes that in his zeal for
propagating Shia' faith and custom, he oppressed the Sunnis and the Hindus.
Although he showed regard to the 'ulema of Hanafi school in their service to
religion, it is also a fact that he engineered the killing of a number of men of
Sunni faith. See THK. p. 283.
15. Malik Haidar says that he was a grocer but received
favours from Husain Khan and was given the title Khan Zaman by him. He aligned
some of the commanders with himself and tried to stage a revolt. See TMH. MS. f.
61b. It appears that soon after Husain Shah's accession to the throne, there
started a rivalry for power between his Chief Vizir Malik Muhammad Naji and Fath
Khwaja (Khan Zaman). This Khan Zaman and Bahadur Khan were the associates of the
'lord of the border' (marzban). See THK. p. 281. Marzban (Marz=border+ban=keeper,
appears to be the Persian equivalent of Sanskrit dvarnayaka or dvarpati (Lord of
the Gate). Regarding his title and functions, see Rajat. v, 214 et seq.
16. Shams Dubi in THK. p. 281.
17. The author does not mention the name of Muhammad
Naji as an opponent of Khan Zaman.
18. At a place called Wothnar. See THK. p. 281
20. The inference is that Mabarez Khan did not
subscribe to Shia' faith.
21. He professed Sunni faith. See THK p. 282.
22. The two words in the text are muhibban and
mawaliyan. Perhaps the allusion is to the followers of the Imams and of 'Ali.
23. Yusuf Muno in Waga'at-i-Kashmir. p. 91. Hasan
writes that this Yusuf Inder was in the entourage of Mirza Muqim, the Shia'. See
THK. p. 283.
24. They were Shias. See THK. p. 284.
25. Hasan contradicts this and writes that the orders
of the Sultan were obtained when he was holding the public court (Diwam-i-'amm)
See THK. p. 284.
26. Hasan says that he was killed by a mob. Ibid.
27. It apparently seems to be a Sunni-Shia' riot.
28. Probably small-pox. See THK. p. 284.
29. The descendants of Yusuf stated that as he was
practising swordsmanship outside the mosque, he inadvertantly struck a blow
which wounded the Qadi in his hand. Hasan further writes that on the particular
day on which the two muftis were ordered to be beheaded, most of the people of
the city [sic] had gone on an excursion to the Dal lake. The city had almost
become empty and Husain Shah seized the opportunity of getting them executed.
THK. p. 286. The executioner was Fath Khan Chak. See Ferishta, History. p . 364.
30. Hasan writes that after the martyrdom of those two
elderly persons, Muqim Khan hastened his departure from Kashmir. By agreeing to
comply with royal orders, Husain Chak 'threw round his neck the collar of
servility,' and along with many excellent presents, sent his daughter through
Muqim Khan for Akbar to marry. THK, p. 286.
31. From this and the preceding sentence it appears
that Khwaja Hajji's mission was to mould the opinion of some prominent men of
religion, such as Mulla 'Abdullah and Shaykh 'Adbu'n-Nabi and others so that the
matter could be brought to the notice of Akbar.
32. It may be inferred from these sentences that after
the execution of Mir Muqim and Ya'qub Mir, Shia'-Sunni riot, erupted there.
33. Malik Haidar makes no mention of Yusuf Mir Inder's
episode and its aftermath and Hasan makes no mention of Akbar's reprisals on
34. Both Malik Haidar and Hasan write that he spent his
remaining days of life at Zenapore. TMH. MS. f. 62a and THK. p. 288.
35. Husain Quli Khan Turkman was the governor of Panjab.
See THK. p. 291 n.
36. For dinar see Rajat. Vol. II. p. 308 et seq.
37. He ascended the throne in A.H. 978/A.D. 1570.
38. Hasan records that he used to present himself
before Shaykh Makhdum Hamza (Sultanu'l-Arifin. d. A.D. 1566) and the saint Hardi
Baba Rishi. Three couplets from an encomium called qaside lamiyyeh composed by
the famous poet and saint Baba Da'uld-Khaki in praise of 'Ali Shah have been
included by Hasan in his history. See THK. pp. 288-89.
39. The dead body of Sultan 'Ali Shah was temporarily
buried in the compound of Jami'-Masjid. See THK. p. 294.
40. Sayyid Mub'arak Khan had tried to resolve the
deadlock through the mediation of Muhammad Chak, Baba Khalil and some more
nobles, but the effort yieded no result. See THK. p. 294.
41. Malik Haidar gives a different version of the
struggle for power between Yusuf Khan and Abdal Khan. When the news of Yusuf
Khan's taking over the reins of the government reached his uncle Abdal Khan,
everybody suggested to him that he (Abdal) should put up resistance. But he did
not agree to do so and said that Yusuf Khan was like his child, and in his old
age he did not have the physical strength to bear the strain of fighting. He
said that he was prepared to accept him as the new ruler. He then sent a few
persons to Yusuf Khan directing them to join the funeral procession of the late
Sultan. He even prepared himself to join it. But his eldest son Habib Khan
dissuaded him from doing so. It was then resolved that they should draft an
agreement and then proceed to the house of Yusuf Khan. When the news of the
contemplated agreement reached Yusuf Khan, he did make promises and commitments
to them. But malicious people played mischief and Yusuf Khan deferred giving
funeral to his dead father. On the same day, he initiated fighting with Abdal
Khan. In the battle which was fought in the locality of Nowhatta, Abdal Khan was
slain by Sayyid Mubarak. TMH. MS. ff. 64b-65a. For more details see
Tabaqat-i-Akbari. p 629 and Tarikh-i-Firishta, Vol. II, p. 365.
42. A.H. 987/A.D. 1579.