Patterns and Climatic Divisions
territory of the State of Jammu and Kashmir lies
between four degrees of latitude from 32.17 to
36.58 North. Within these 640 Kms. there is a
sudden rise of altitude from 305 metres to 6910
metres above sea level. The State of Jammu and
Kashmir, therefore, lies between the hot plains of
the Jammu Province and coldest dry table-land of
Ladakh. These territories are, as such,
transitional in climate.
conditions are different at different places.
There are many causes of difference:
Relief is the main factor. Lofty mountains
like the Pirpanjal, the Zanskar and the Karakoram
check winds from blowing in thus moisture is
stopped from entering the valleys by the lofly
The Monsoon winds in summer cause rain in the
Outer Plains and the Outer Hills. But these winds
can cross the Pirpanjal range only when they are
very strong. In winter winds from the
Mediterranean cause snow and rain in the Valley of
Kashmir. Snow falls on the mountains which enclose
Forests influence winds, rainfall and
temperature. The moisture laden winds cause
rainfall in the forests on the hills making the
temperature to fall in summer. Thus the climate of
Pahalgam, Gulmarg etc. is comparatively milder
than that of Srinagar or Sopore.
Altitude is also a factor. So the climate of
the valley of Kashmir is comparatively milder than
that of the Outer Plain that lie on a very low
altitude. The rainfall also varies as the altitude
climate found in the zone of the Middle Mountains
and the valleys enclosed is of a particular type.
Altitude determines the degree of coolness and
elevation the form of precipitation and summer
temperature. Winter is cold and of long duration.
When the monsoons are strong, rain is caused. In
higher mountains round the valley of Kashmir,
winter is very cold and there is snow-fall. Summer
is very short and milder.
climate in the Valley of Kashmir has its own
peculiarities. Winter is very cold. It lasts from
November to March. During these months strong
winds bring snow and rain from the Mediterranean
depressions. These come over from Iran and
Afghanistan. Spring begins after 15th of March
when rain falls heavily. It causes landslides. But
for sowing crops this rain is extremely useful.
Rainfall in July and August is as high as 70% and
with summer temperature, it causes discomfort. The
lakes and waterways make the atmosphere damp and
oppressive. The entire valley is covered with a
haze that hides the surrounding mountains from
seasons are marked with sudden change and the year
is divided into six seasons of two months each.