Buddhist Themes in Kashmiri Literature
by Moti Lal Saqi
Buddhism in Kashmir is older than Asoka and survived till 15th Century.
The Valley of Kashmir hailed as the 'Paradise
of Indies' has been a crucible of great world civilizations from remote
pre-historic times down to the present day. The elements of great world
Civilizations are discernable in the composite Kashmiri culture even today. It
is worth noting that Kashmiris derived inspiration from all the rich and fertile
sources but never surrendered their individuality under any on-slaught, despite
many vicissitudes they faced during their history spread over almost five
The Valley of Kashmir has been a cradle of numerous faiths and beliefs, which
include pagnism, animism, Naga-mata, Koul-Acara, Pasupata-mata, Trika, Sanatana
Dharma etc., Buddhism alone, by and large, remained a living faith in the Valley
for more or less two thousand years. Though Buddhism lost its ground in the
sub-continent during the Gupta period, it remained a living faith in Kashmir
even in the 15th century A.D. Benevolent Kashmiri King Budshah (1420-1470 A. D.)
had a Buddhist scholar Tilak-Acharya in his council of ministers. It was in the
concluding quarter of the 15th century that the last Buddhist monastery was
built at Bijbehara, in South Kashmir. The construction of the monastery is a
testimony of the fact that the Buddhist faith must have continued even after the
15th century though the later chroniclers failed to record the fate of the
Buddhist faith after the 15th century.
Buddhism made its way in Kashmir long before the advent of the reign of the
Arya Raja Asoka. As recorded in the national chronicle of Sri Lanka, Mahavamsa,
it was Madhiantika who converted Yakhsa Pandita and a Naga to Buddhism in the
first instance. There is also a recorded legend that Kum Kum in Kashmir was
introduced by Madhiantika.
Buddhism was firmly rooted in the soil of the Valley in 11th century A.D.
when the great Tibetan scholar Rin-Chen-Zang-po stayed here for a period of
seven years to learn at the feet of Buddhist scholars of this area. It was he
who took fresco specialists of Kashmir to the Western Himalayas and got all the
important monasteries embellished with paintings. It is the Western Himalayan
region today which provides us with ample surviving evidence of the Kashmiri
school of wall-paintings and bronzes etc. because after the 15th century the
tradition of painting got wiped out in the Valley on account of historical
Various sects, scholars and Buddhist architecture in Kashmir
Kashmir enjoyed the honour of being the Prayaga, the holy pilgrimate-spot, of
Mahayana Buddhism. It was this unique feature that attracted the attention of
seeker of truth from far-off countries to it. In seventh century A.D. Hieun-Tseng
came to Kashmir and stayed at Jayendra Vihara at Srinagar to attain proficiency
in Sunya-vada in the company of Kashmiri scholars. Ou-Kang was another luminary
seeking knowledge in this way. Great Kumar Jiva stayed in Kashmir for quite some
time to equip himself with the command of Buddhist scriptures. Nagarjuna
propounded his concept of Sunya-vada here and was stationed at present-day
Harwan as recorded in Rajatarangini. The part played by Kashmiri monks and
scholars in the spread of Buddha's message of compassion and fraternity is a
glorious part of our history. These monks and preachers covered Central Asia,
China and reached even Korea on the one side and Sri Lanka, Java and Sumatra on
the other preaching Buddha's Gospel.
Tibetan Tantrayana and Kala-Cakrayana schools owe their origin to Kashmir and
Kashmiris. Lamaism of Western Himalayan countries has absorbed many customs and
rituals from Kashmir and Nepal. It was because of their perfect knowledge and
understanding of Buddhist - lore that preacher monks of Kashmir were designated
as Khuchi Pandits (Learned Kashmiris) in the Western Himalayan countries
of Ladakh, Tibet, Bhutan and Zanaskar.
There is much truth in the fact that the title of Sharda-Pitha (The throne of
the Godess of Learning) bestowed upon Kashmir is actually a gift of Mahayana
Buddhism. It was during Kushan rule that Valley became a centre of Sanskrit
learning. This legacy was further enriched in later centuries which resulted in
giving birth to great luminaries of Sanskrit like Vasu-Gupta, Som-ananda,
Bilhana, Mammata, Kalhana, Jaini-Bhatt, Kheshmandra, Soma Deva, Abhinava-Gupta,
Jonaraja and Srivara to mention only a few. Most of these scholars and creative
writers had a soft corner for Buddhism and gave full credit to its merits.
A remerkable figure of Kashmir was Guna Vermana, of the royal line, who in
his early years, renounced his royal entitlements and took to the monastic way
of life. He preached the message of Lord Buddha in Sri Lanka, Java and Sumatra
and converted kings to Buddhism. After the completion of his mission Gunavermana
came back with a sweet gift to his people in the shape of the 'pagoda' style of
architecture usually called 'eastern Java type'. It is known in Kashmir
Parihaspora, Risi and Charbam style. The 'Pagoda' type of architecture attained
great popularity in Kashmir and the best structures of yore in Kashmir represent
this type. In present day Kashmir this type is still in vogue and considered
sanctified buildings; all prominent shrines particularly those of Rishis, belong
to this type. Though Kashmiris have made certain additions and alterations in
this type (i.e. they have combined stupa and monastery in one structure) its
basic form has not undergone any drastic change. The same old Chatteravali spire
and square-base remain to keep its original shape and form in tact. New shrines
of this type are built even in the present epoch. The shrine of Nund Rishi at
Driyagama is a living specimen of it. Built only a few years back; it is being
decorated now in accordance with the old canons.
Wandering Buddhist monks of Kashmir were always on the move, as borne out by
various sources of history. On the occasion of inauguration of Anuradhapuram
stupa in Sri Lanka, in the remote past, Kashmiri Buddhists constituted the
second biggest contingent.
Survivals of Buddhist practices in Kashmir society
Buddhism has left deep and indelible imprints on the life and culture of
Kashmiri folk. Though it lost its hold on Kashmir some 450 years back and people
do not profess the faith, now its rituals, customs and mythology sustain their
life and activities. The custom of Kashmiri Pandits keeping a fast on the eight
day of every bright half-of-the moon, known as Atham (Astami) has a close
connection with the Buddhist faith; on this day homage used to be paid to the
Buddha and Podisattva. Similarly their offering of oblation on the occasion of
Huma is made not only to the gods and goddesses of their own pantheon but also
to Tri-ratna, Avalokitesh-vara and Tara. In their daily prayers they pay
obeisance to Buddhist goddesses, Varahi, Mrici, Locana, Prajana, Rag Ratri,
Vajra Ratri and others. Display of sacred relics and shrine-worship are as
common among the Kashmiris of today as they must have been prevailed in the
hey-day of Buddhism.
Due to its long stay in the Valley, Buddhism virtually shaped the course of
Kashmir History. Under its influence two indigenous spiritual schools were born,
known as Trika-Darsana and Risi order of mystics. The monotheistic trika system
of Kashmir never accepted the authority of the Vedas and discarded the caste
system. Its conception of Paramasiva is in fact a subtle from of Sunya-Vada.
Kashmir Saivism came into being as a result of historical needs and has served
as a bridge between the Buddhism and Hinduism. Kashmir Saivism inherited
Vegetarianism from Buddhists and the latter had no difficulty in embracing the
Hinduism to a large extent. The rishi order of mystics in Kashmir is more
or less an adaptation from Buddhism. Kashmiri rishis, though counted Mussalmans,
were vegetarian to the core. They shunned marriage and domestic chores, lived in
monasteries and devoted their life to public welfare. Tolerance, compassion,
mutual goodwill, respect for each other's faith, and human values, which have
moulded our composite culture are marvellous legacy of Buddhism; we cherish, own
and practise these values even in this chaotic age also.
Buddhist ideas in old Kashmiri Literature; Lal Ded
Kashmiri Literature took shape as part of our composite culture. The first
specimens of Kashmiri language and literature are found in some Saiva works of
the 11th century A.D. and Chuma-padas of 12th century A.D. Chum-Samprada
as a matter of fact has been an off-shoot of Mahayana.
Sahajayana also has influenced Kashmiri poets through the ages; this
was a later sect of Mahayana thus Kashmiri literature was born in the lap of
Buddhist-lore. But it was at the hands of Lal Ded (1320-1377 A.D.) and Nund Risi
that Kashmiri Poetry struck roots and impressed the minds of the people. Both
Lal Ded and Nund Rishi remain unsurpassed, having attained great height of
literary effort. All Kashmiri speaking people use Vakhs of Lal Ded and Shruks of
Nund Risi for parables and proverbs and their merit and spiritual appeal is
accepted by one and all. Lal Ded though basically a Shiva Yogini has a lot in
common with Buddhism, and Buddhist themes are enshrined in her Vakhs in a
beautiful way. She speaks of the Buddhist Middle path (Madhyana-prati-pat),
the furnished Buddhist way of life because it keeps us away from two extreme
ways, i.e. life of ease and luxury and the life of rigorous asceticism. Lal Ded
herself was a follower of this path she declares her belief thus;
It is no use to fill the belly again and again,
you wont be able to attain any thing;
Do not follow the way of self-mortification;
It will arouse your sense of conceit.
Be moderate in your way of life,
To be moderate is the way to reach the goal.
Wear dress, only to avoid the cold,
Take food only to cope with hunger;
Listen, Oh dear one! think for a while,
You do not need to shed tears for this perishable body. She is totally
against the sacrifice of animals, and puts forth powerful arguments to bring
home to people the necessity of non-violence and non-injury;
It conceals your nakedness and protects you
from winter chill
It thrives on grass and Water;
Who has initiated you, Oh Pandit;
To sacrifice this living lamb for a non-living idol.
Lal Ded had great veneration for the great Buddha.
In one of her Vakhs she declares
Be he Siva, Vishnu, Buddha or Brahma
I am not bothered about the name or form
I only desire to be cured of my worldly ailment.
Sunya-vada is very close to her heart and she understands that it is the
Sunya which is the origin or the source of all things. Lal Ded is the first
creative writer who coined the term "Kainhna" for Sunya expressing
her experience she says :
I repeatedly enquire from my perceptor
What name shall we give "that" which has no name
My repeated questioning bore no fruit
I fumbled and broke down.
Then I perceived that some thing came out of Sunya.
She in fact accepts that we emerge from Sunya
and are absorbed in Sunya :
Incessantly we come, without a break we go,
this process has no halt, no stop
Whence we come, whence we go
Sunya, Sunya, Sunya and what?
Nund Risi the great patron saint
The great patron saint of Kashmir, Nund Risi (1377-1442 A.D.) has been the
centre of adoration for all Kashmiris irrespective of their faith or belief.
Mussalmans call him Alamdar-Kashmir (Standard-bearer of Kashmir) and Pandits as
Sahaja-Anand (in-born bliss).
Nund Rishi was a Bodisattva incarnate of his times. He not only preached the
gospel of love, non violence, compassion and universal brother-hood, but himself
lived a pious life of high order. He spent twelve years of his early life in a
cave in meditation and when he came out, he composed a long poem Buddha Carita
(life of Buddha) now lost. However a few fragments of this long poem are
preserved in some Rishi Namas (talks of Rishis). He is believed to be the
founder of Rishi order of Kashmir, although we come across references to some
ancient Rishis in his longer poem who were his forerunners. Nund Rishi's love
for living beings and his firm faith in non-violence and non-injury is
proverbial. His compassion and piety has been a source of inspiration for those
who followed in his foot-steps. He made his Shrunks (Shaloks) the vehicle of his
Risi philosophy and his way of life. As literary figures and mystics both Lal
Ded and Nund Rishi are the founders of Kashmiri culture and spiritual
renaissance. Stressing his faith in non-violence the latter says :
Do not slay this innocent lamb,
You slay none else but the universal soul,
understand my word of initiation.
All these forms are but the sparks of the ultimate.
He sees all life as a part of one universal self projecting itself in
countless forms. He was all love and compassion for the living beings and saw
life throbbing in all the objects of nature. It was this intense respect and
love for life which made him to give up the food of green-vegetables, to live on
milk for some time and in the last phase to sustain himself simply on water,
which brought him the title of "Salil-hara-Rishi" (the water-sipping saint).
Lamenting the cruelty practised in his times he says with a heavy heart :
They kill that very rooster
Who reminds them that time is running out;
that rooster will not weigh more than a seer
Where such treatment is meted out to an
Great God, I shall not be born there.
This shrunk also gives clear evidence that he was believer in re-birth
or transmigration of souls. Once he was passing through a wood and saw maidens
plucking spurious vegetables. Moved to tears he addressed them thus;
Why do you pluck these tender vegetables
Why are you after this green attire of mother
Why do you forget thereafter,
Where you have to render the account of
It is to be noted that shruks of Nund Rishi are the vehicle of the
teachings of his mystic order. One cannot understand the basic, spirit of the
Rishi order unless one has developed an insight into his poetry. Kashmiris read
his shruks with great reverence and say it is the holy Quran in Kashmiri,
just as Masnavi Maulana Rome is called the holy Quran in Pahalvi i.e. Persian.
Kashmiri mysticism : Sunya Vada :
The under-current of Buddhist thought and themes never ceased to influence
the Kashmiri mind at any time particularly with mystics and Darveshes of
the land. The most influential concept which moulded the thought of Kashmiri
mystics is Sunya Vada. As referred to earlier it was Lal Ded who coined the term
"Kainhna" for Sunya, as early as the 14th century. Since then this term appears
in our mystic poetry again and again and has attracted the attention of today's
mystic poets also. In Kashmiri, mystic poetry constitutes the richest treasure
and in its thought-content and statement of spiritual experiences it has enough
to quench the thirst of seekers of truth.
All our epoch-making mystic poets have accepted the Sunya as ultimate
reality. There is hardly anything in common between Kashmiri "Kainhna"
and "Nafi" or "La" of Islamic mysticism or Tasawuf as it is often called.
Further all known mystic poets have tried to understand and interpret "Kainhna"
according to their experience and perception. The change of faith of mystic
poets of Kashmir has not changed their mental world, and their inner self is
still preserved in their subconscious mind their old inheritance. So far as
their day-to-day life is concerned mystics are very pious Mussalmans but in
their thinking and perception of spirituality they still retain Buddhist and in
certain cases Shaiva approach. The "Kainhna" of Kashmiri mystics is
sometimes nearer to Neti-neti (not this, not this) of Advaita Vedanta,
but this philosophy had never its way over Kashmir, Neti-neti of Vedanta
(predicating whatever the ultimate is not) is at the sametime one more elaborate
inter-pretation of "Sunya".
Advaita Philosophy could not be very close to the Kashmiri mind as Trika was
a dominant force in Kashmir at the time when Advaita Vedanta was gaining ground
in other parts of the sub-continent. How Kashmiri mystics have treated the theme
of Sunya and what its essence was according to their individual understanding
and mental discipline can be inferred from some examples :
That which has no form, is encompassing
What you see is but a ripple.
Ripple by itself is not apart from the waters;
Knower of this truth is free from bondage;
(Ibrahim Shah - 19th Century)
There is nothing behind or beyond but the Sunya;
Everything emerges from its bosom.
It is a riddle to be explained.
I only know that Sunya prevails.
I am only the shade or tool
(Such Kral 19th Century)
Shams Faqir says :
Whence do you come? Whence do you go?
What name do you bear, what is your destination?
What is the essence? reveal
Compliment is a tribute to existence
Whab Khar another poet of Qadri mystic order has understood the Sunya
in his own way in terms of his experience :
Ascetics resmble the Sunya
Unity is beyond the Waste-land
Multiplicity cannot enter that realm
I am amazed to witness this phenomenon.
(D - 1912 A.D.)
Another leading poet of Kubravi order Samad Mir (1897-1960 A.D.) sings
of his perception in this way:
This cosmos is the Sunya
All our knowledge flows from it
It there is nothing other than Sunya,
To whom shall I pay the obeisance?
I heard of the Sunya and am contemplating.
A towering Sufi poet of our times Ahad Zargar (D - 1983 A.D.) speaks
thus of his perception :
Sunya merged in Sunya
My naked eyes witnessed it
What is the cause behind this Sunya
I am bewildered to understand it.
Buddhist ideas in Kashmiri Poetry
Dhyana Marga (path of meditation) was to Buddha the real path to attain
perfection reaching the ultimate. In 'Maha-sucak suta' he has expressed
his firm faith in this Marga (path). Sufi poets in Kashmir have consciously
followed this path and have stressed its importance for the seekers of truth.
They preached this path with so much conviction, that their heart felt
perceptions got poured out in the shape of spontaneous poetry :
Don't be led astray, follow the path of meditation
Keep mind and life-breath together
The lotus in you will sprout in glory
Be composed; you will be free from torments
Dear : Oh my dear : meditate on "OM"
(Paramananda - 19th Century)
Shah Gafoor speaks of his conviction in this verse :
Nothing in this world is ours as our lot,
Nothing is prize for here-after,
Meditate on 'though art that'
Follow the path of meditation, understand my word;
What you perceive, keep it a secret;
those who attain are in know of the truth
Our Lord is a Sun amongst the stars.
(Samad Mir D - 1960)
Most of the Kashmiri poets consider this world full of miseries and
misfortunes and long to be free from its shackles and bondage. The deceptive
appearance of the world has not hindered their perception.
Shamas Faqir a top-ranking mystic has this feeling :
I saw mountains and hillocks ablaze,
All around there was scarcity of water
Alas, I was snared by a green path
And was caught in it.(D-1905)
Gulam Nabi Dilsoz (D-1942) is fully aware of the reality and says in a
sad mood :
Make the best use of this moment;
This world is but a market-place of misfortunes
Another poet as man feels :
Evil deeds are the cause of defame
You cannot carry on with this heavy burden;
Every part of your body will be a witness of
This world is not of any value to any one.
Modern poetry and drama on Buddhist themes
Master Zinda Kaul (1884-1965) is all praise for Buddha; in one of his
poems he recalls :
He is here the cow or sheep, and there the
cat or tiger;
There he is a Buddha, a Shankara, or a Tagore;
And here He is a simpleton like myself
Thus has he come to amuse himself!
Our modern poets and writers have taken to Buddhist themes being very much
influenced by the luminous personality of Bhagvan Buddha. They have derived
inspiration from Buddhist sources here and there in their poems espousing human
values. Moti Lal Kemmu (b-1933) wrote a play 'Tsay' using a Buddhist theme for
depicting the undesirability of war. It is a play of unique type in Kashmiri
literature. Embodying a protest against war and its repercussions, Kemmu has
borrowed freely from history and Buddhist-lore. One of the main characters of
the play is Saravajha Mitra, a Kashmiri by birth, and a teacher of university at
Kemmu has slightly amended the name of the scholar to Sarvagina Mitra so as
to suit the sound palteins of Kashmiri language. The theme has been so handled
that the nemesis is seen inevitable. At the end the main characters of the play
are overtaken by snow-storm and are buried in it. This play has been well
received by all critics and has won the state Cultural Academy award. Its Hindi
version appeared a few months back.
Avtar Krishnan Rehbar (b-1932) is a known short-story writer and play
wright. His well-known short story 'Niravana' brings richness to Kashmiri
literature; it views the concept of 'Nirvana contrasting it with painful modern
realities. It is pointed out that 'Nirvana' has lost its meaning for present-day
man who goes hankering after wealth and sensual pleasure. Rehbar's story
embodies his protest against the short sighted materialism of present-day man
lamenting at the erosion of values cherished by our fore-fathers. This appealing
story has been translated in Urdu, Hindi, Dogri and some other regional
Buddhist values combined with human values
The life and teachings of Lord Buddha have inspired Moti Lal Saqui
(b-1936)deeply who has written widely on Buddhist subjects, particularly on
contribution of Kashmiris to Buddhism. He has translated a number of Jataka
tails into Kashmiri. His poems have an undercurrent of Buddhist philosophy. One
of his poem is 'Mrgvan' (Deer-park), in which he has dealt with the subject of
attainment of enlightenment of the Buddha and has afterwards set out the chaotic
conditions of modern world with cherished values lying in shambles. Frustration
discontent, greed, envy and violence have become the order of the day. Buddha's
message carries no weight for present-day man and that it is simply a subject of
text-books now to be crammed by the students. He feels sad that no Buddha will
appear again and there is none to deliver us from the shackles.
At last he left at the dead of night
With a heavy heart and distracted mind
in search of the Invisible;
To perceive Him through his vision, he
carried on austerities for a long long time;
But all this proved of no avail
He got hold of his mind,
gave up chanting of mantras,
crossed the bay of miseries on the boat
of simple words,
touched the pinnacles,
attained the state where words yield to silence.
Now No Buddha is expected to be born;
Sambodhi is a mirage in this age of ours
It is now a part of the text-books,
to be crammed by the students,
in this thick forest of human beings
The poem ranked as one lyrical charm has been translated in a number of
Indian languages. Modern Kashmiri poet Dina Nath Nadim (1916-1988)
(regarded as the tallest of the tall) was the only epoch making poet after Lal
Ded. A firm believer in the great human values, Nadim was in love with Buddhist
phikosophy, values and the personality of Lord Buddha. It was his firm
conviction that Buddha Dharma is basically a path of peace and human
brotherhood. In one of his poems he refers to a Buddhist - temple as an abode of
peace and tranquality. To hom Lord Buddha was a symbol of love and compassion.
In one of his famous poems 'Yi Soun Dunya' (This world of ours) Nadim
expresses his feelings in this strain :
This land of ours,
the land of peace and fragrant roses
decked with flowers and decorated with
It is the land of valiant Arjuna, the big-hearted
Gautama the Buddha is ours,
the harbinger of peace and symbol of love
Nadim was a progressive poet and had hardly anything to do with
mysticism. But metaphysical speculation brought him very near to the "Kainhna"
of mystic poets and Sunya-Vada of Buddhism. Along with his vast studies which
drew him very close to Sunya-Vada, the Kashmiri poetic tradition shaped and
sharpened his way of thinking. Nadim speaks with high poetic imagination of his
This world - a crude reality very much before us
And Sunya - far far away, a vague conception
This world - within the range of experience at all times
And Sunya - just a try to understand what is what
This world - bound within the cycle of time
and Sunya - Always young without the pangs of old age
This world - An amalgam of sweet and sour
and Sunya - Colourless, a journey in the
unknown, a soundless reality.
Arjan Dev Majboor is a poet of stature and has contributed his bit in
the furtherance of Kashmiri literature. Majboor is a poet and research scholar
of varied interests. He has derived inspiration from ancient sources. His
Kathagur (story-teller) is a remarkable poem bringing alive the role of
Kashmiris in the development and propagation of Buddhism in the far-off lands of
Central Asia, Tibet and other northern parts of Kashmir. A blend of History and
poetic imagination gives depth and dimension to the poet's utterances. Majboor's
best use of verse-craft and historical knowledge shows up his gifts:
The serene and sweet message of love
Crossed the mountains.
Nagas and Paishaches joined hands
new area dispelled the darkness of the past
Sunya-Vada was absorbed by Trika.
Soom Nath Veer is a poet of the younger generation. Displaying
individuality in statement and treatment of themes. His poem Yadasht
(remembrance) is a tribute to Buddha and Buddhism :
We enjoyed the pure message of the Buddha,
Carried the banners of brother-hood
Through Khutan, Taskant and Kashgar,
Followed the path of piety and compassion
This Ashoke Chakra deserves your attention,
Lion and goat quench thirst at the same spot.
The message of universal brotherhood and equality of man has been the
key-note of Kashmiri poetry almost for the last six hundred years. It has been a
humanistic note all through with poets singing in praise of men and holding
human dignity in high esteem. Mehjoor (1885-1952) has praised the
composite culture of Kashmir in his melodious songs, again and again and has
held up the brother-hood and religious harmony of Kashmir :
Hindus and Mussalmans belong to one family and
Why should they go astray, why should they be
averse to each other?
Mussalman is milk and Hindu is sugar
Mix the two and enjoy the sweetness.
Abdul Ahad Azad (1903-1948), a junior contemporary of Mehjoor, devoted
a major portion of his compositions to speak of his belief and faith in the
dignity of man and universal brotherhood. Of all the poets of the 20th Century
in Kashmiri, Abdul Ahad Azad has been a crusader without equal against communal
passion, hatred coersion and force. His powerful pleas for equality combined
with his skill of poetic craft make him a thinker-poet. He speaks thus of the
essential human personality, divorced from externals:
You were born as a human being
Where did you embrace Hindu Dharma
Your religion is equality and fraternity.
It is wrong to discriminate between man and man.
Had the eternal been interested to keep religions
and nations apart from one another
Every nation and every faith would have been
provided with a separate land and sky.
His approach to God is stated in these words :
The water that nourished Kalhana, Gani and Sarfi,
Can that water prove poisonous for you?
Your God is consoled with the temples, mosques
But my God is pleased with love, equality
Despite the pulls and pressures of the times, Buddhist thought and culture
directly or indirectly continue to influence Kashmiri life in this age also as
it has allured Kashmiris for centuries earlier. The Buddhist influence has been
a balancing factor sustaining and shaping the tolerance of Kashmiri people, who
temperamentally avoid religious and communal conflicts and imbalance has harmed
none other than Kashmiris as has been observed through the centuries.
Though Buddhism as a religion is no more a living faith in the Kashmiri
speaking area of J & K state, its deep-rooted ages old influence is still
keeping alive the nourished value of tolerance, brotherhood and respect for all
faiths; which are inscribed on the subconscious mind of all Kashmiris.