Below is the text
of the Sino-Pak Border agreement 1963 through which Pakistan illegally
ceded 1/3rd of the territory of Jammu and Kashmir to China.
The Government of the People’s Republic of China
and the Government of Pakistan;
HAVING agreed, with a view to ensuring the prevailing
peace and tranquility on the border, to formally delimit and demarcate
the boundary between China’s Sinking and the contiguous areas the defence
of which is under the actual control of Pakistan, in a spirit of fairness,
reasonableness, mutual understanding and mutual accommodation, and on the
basis of the ten principles as enunciated in the Bandung conference.
Being convinced that this would not only give
full expression to the desire of the people of China and Pakistan for the
development of good neighbourly and friendly relations, but also help safeguard
Asian and world peace.
Have resolved for this purpose to conclude the
present agreement and have appointed as their respective plenipotentiaries
For the Government of the People’s Republic of
China; Chen Yi, Minister of Foreign Affairs.
For the Government of the Pakistan Zulfikar Bhutto,
Minister of External Affairs.
Who, having mutually examined their full powers
and found them to be in good and due form have agreed upon following:
In view of the fact that the boundary between China’s
Sinkiang and the contiguous areas the defence of which is under the actual
control of Pakistan has never been formally delimited, two parties agree
to delimit it on the basis of the traditional customary boundary line including
features and in a spirit of equality, mutual benefit and friendly cooperation.
In accordance with the principle expounded
in Article 1 of the present agreement, the two parties have fixed as follows
the alignment of the entire boundary line between China’s Sinkiang and
the contiguous areas the defence of which is under the actual control of
1) Commencing from its north western extremity
at height 5,630 metres (a peak the reference coordinates of which are approximately
longitude 74 degrees 34 minutes east and latitude 37 degrees 3 minutes
north), the boundary line runs generally eastward and then South-eastward
strictly along the main watershed between the tributaries of the Tashkurgan
river of the Tarim river system on the one hand on the tributes of the
Hunza river of the Indus river system on the other hand, passing through
the Kilik Daban (Dawan), the Mintake Daban (pass), the Kharchanai Daban
(named on the Chinese map only), the Mutsgila Daban (named on the Chinese
map only) and the Parpik Pass (named on the Pakistan map only) and reaches
the Khunjerab (Yutr Daban (Pass).
2) After passing through the Kunjerab (Yutr)
Daban (pass) the boundary line runs generally southward along the above-mentioned
main watershed upto a mountain-top south of the Daban (pass), where it
leaves the main watershed to follow the crest of a spur lying generally
in a south-easterly direction, which is the watershed between the Akjilga
river ( a nameless corresponding river on the Pakistan map) on the one
hand, and the Taghumbash (Oprang) river and the Koliman Su (Orang Jilga)
on the other hand. According to the map of the Chinese side, the boundary
line, after leaving the south-eastern extremity of the spur, runs along
a small section of the middle line of the bed of the Koliman Su to reach
its confluence with the Elechin river. According to the map of the Pakistan
side, the boundary line, after leaving the south-eastern extremity of this
spur, reaches the sharp bend of the Shaksgam of Muztagh river.
3) From the aforesaid point, the boundary lines
runs up the Kelechin river (Shaksgam or Muztagh river) along the middle
line of its bed its confluence (reference coordinates approximately longitude
76 degrees 2 minutes east and latitude 36 degrees 26 minutes north) with
the Shorbulak Daria (Shimshal river or Braldu river).
4) From the confluence of the aforesaid two rivers,
the boundary line, according to the map of the Chinese side, ascends the
crest of a spur and runs along it to join the Karakoram range main watershed
at a mountain-top (reference coordinates approximately longitude 75 degrees
54 minutes east and latitude 36 degrees 15 minutes north) which on this
map is shown as belonging to the Shorgulak mountain. According to the map
of the Pakistan side, the boundary line from the confluence of the above
mentioned two river ascends the crest of a corresponding spur and runs
along it, passing through height 6.520 meters (21,390 feet) till it joins
the Karakoram range main watershed at a peak (reference coordinates approximately
longitude 75 degrees 57 minutes east and latitude 36 degrees 3 minutes
5) Thence, the boundary line, running generally
south-ward and then eastward strictly follows the Karakoram range main
watershed which separates the Tarim river drainage system from the Indus river drainage
system, passing through the east Mustagh pass (Muztagh pass), the top of
the Chogri peak (K-2) the top of the broad peak, the top of the Gasherbrum
mountain (8,068), the Indirakoli pass (names of the Chinese maps only)
and the top of the Teramn Kankri peak, and reaches its south-eastern extremity
at the Karakoram pass. Then alignment of the entire boundary line as described
in section one of this article, has been drawn on the one million scale
map of the Pakistan side in English which are signed and attached to the
present agreement. In view of the fact that the maps of the two sides are
not fully identical in their representation of topographical features the
two parties have agreed that the actual features on the ground shall prevail,
so far as the location and alignment of the
boundary described in section
one is concerned, and that they will be determined as far as possible by doing survey on the ground.
The two parties have agreed that:
i) Wherever the boundary follows a river, the
middle line of the river bed shall be the boundary line; and that
ii) Wherever the boundary passes through a deban
(pass) the water-parting line thereof shall be the boundary line.
One the two parties have agreed to set up,
as soon as possible, a joint boundary demarcation commission. Each side
will appoint a chairman, one or more members and a certain number of advisers
and technical staff. The joint boundary demarcation commission is charged
with the responsibility in accordance with the provisions of the present
agreement, to hold concrete discussions on and carry out the following
1) To conduct necessary surveys of the boundary
area on the ground, as stated in Article 2 of the present agreement so
as to set up boundary markers at places considered to be appropriate by
the two parties and to delineate the boundary line of the jointly prepared
To draft a protocol setting forth in detail the
alignment of the entire boundary line and the location of all the boundary
markers and prepare and get printed detailed maps, to be attached to the
protocol, with the boundary line and the location of the boundary markers
shown on them.
2) The aforesaid protocol, upon being signed
by representatives of the governments of the two countries, shall become
an annex to the present agreement, and the detailed maps shall replace
the maps attached to the present agreement.
3) Upon the conclusion of the above-mentioned
protocol, the tasks of the joint boundary demarcation commission shall
The two parties have agreed that any dispute
concerning the boundary which may arise after the delimitation of boundary
line actually existing between the two countries shall be settled peacefully
by the two parties through friendly consultations.
The two parties have agreed that after the
settlement of the Kashmir dispute between Pakistan and India, the sovereign
authority concerned will reopen negotiations with the Government of the
People’s Republic of China on the boundary as described in Article. Two
of the present agreement, so as to sign a formal boundary treaty to replace
the present agreement, provided that in the event of the sovereign authority
being Pakistan, the provisions of the present agreement and of the aforesaid
protocol shall be maintained in the formal boundary treaty to be signed
between the People’s Republic of China and Pakistan.
The present agreement shall come into force
on the data of its signature.
Done in duplicate in Peking on the second day
of March 1963, in the Chinese and English languages, both side being equally